Background: The Nazis managed to capture a small part of British territory during World War II, the Channel Islands. They put out a variety of daily newspapers in English. The issue I am working from here had four pages. I here include the full text of the first page and the editorial from the second page. The remaining copy consists mainly of advertising, gardening notes, and various personal news items. Here, then, is the Nazi view of the world as presented to a captive British population.
The source: Guernsey Evening Press, Tuesday, January 20, 1942.
|No. 11,454||GUERNSEY, TUESDAY, JANUARY 20, 1942||THREE-HALFPENCE|
From the Führer’s Headquarters, January 19th, 1942.
The German Supreme Command announces:
German and Rumanian troops under the command of General von Manstein, in co-operation with the Air Force formations of General Ritter von Greim, repulsed the Sovjet forces landed on the southern coast of the Crimea after fierce fighting lasting for several days. The town of Feodosia has been re-captured by the Germans after determined assaults. So far more than 4,600 prisoners have been made, and 73 tanks, 77 guns and large quantities of other war material have been captured.
Along the entire Donez front the enemy carried out attacks with strong forces. Fighting is still in progress.
In the Central and northern sectors of the Eastern Front the renewed enemy attacks have resulted in further heavy losses to the Sovjets. During a German counter-attack launched on January 17th and 18th by German Infantry and tank formations in all 35 guns, 23 grenade-throwers, 45 machine guns and considerable quantities of other war material were captured. The enemy lost 430 dead and 140 prisoners during these operations.
In the waters of Murmansk the German Air Force damaged a large merchant vessel with bombs.
General Field-Marshal von Reichenau, leader of the German Army group on the Eastern Front, who was taken seriously ill with apoplexy, died during his journey to Germany.
The Fuehrer has ordered a state funeral for the deceased Field-Marshal, and announced an Order of the Day to the German Army. Adolf Hitler calls General Field-Marshall von Reichenau an ensign of a new epoch spirit. The Order of the Day points out that Marshal von Reichenau was the first leader of the tank army, which he led to victory and who was often fighting in the first line with his troops; and states finally that his name will live in the history of the German people and army.
Mr. Amery, Secretary of State for India, at a luncheon given for Indian officers, declared that contrary to the Great War, this time India had to fight for her own safety. Should Japan succeed in taking Singapore there would be no more protection left for the Empire in India. The question is how many of the 550 million people in India are anxious to have this British protection. They have had to put up with for long enough though it has always been regarded as an ingenious system of bondage and exploitation. Self-government which has been promised time out of number invariably proved a masterly piece of deception, a snare and a delusion in fact. The British stayed lords of the land and, as Gaudhi expressed it, knew how to turn the sweat of millions of starving Indians into gold pieces tinkling in the Bank of England. Lord Linlithgow, Viceroy of India, in a broadcast from Calcutta tried to set up a kind of Indo-British solidarity for the defence of the country. He appealed to the unity of the Indian Nation and exhorted the people to pool what he called their “domestic differences in this fateful hour of world history.” (The Indians for their part say these differences have always been fomented by the English on the ‘divide and rule’ principle). The Viceroy reminded his listeners of repeated promises for the future, never redeemed, and thought the hour had come for the people of India to show their national ability by increasing the common war effort.
India knows full well from experience what these promises are worth. Hundreds of her national leaders have only recently been arrested. In Penang her troops underwent the bitter experience of being left in the lurch by their British officers during the retreat and many complained of bad treatment, some even having been put into irons. India is in a ferment, of that there is no doubt. The Japanese are regarded as liberators who are not waging a war against the people of India.
German bombers raided harbours on the English south-east coast. Direct hits were scored on an ammunition depôt on the Shetland Islands.
In North Africa successful reconnaissance operations by German and Italian troops in Cyrenaica resulted in a number of prisoners being captured. German bombers attacked harbour installations and air bases on the coast of Cyrenaica. In the Gulf of Sidra several large merchant ships were heavily damaged by bombs in the course of an attack against a British convoy.
During the re-capture of Feodosia Colonel Mueller, who had been awarded the Knight’s Cross to the Iron Cross again distinguished himself.
The support of Bolshevism by the Church of England continues to be a subject of bitter criticism among Finnish churchmen. Thus the Finnish Bishop, Max von Bonsdorff, writes as follows in the “Hälsingborgs Dagbladet” under the title “Why Finland fights:”
“With pain and inner protest we have noticed that one of the most important Christian Churches in the World has long since taken the part of the godless Bolshevist powers and not only wishes the victory of these powers but has even called upon its people to pray for this victory in a national day of prayer. It seems impossible to us that without betrayal of the Christian faith one can pray for the victory of those powers which are responsible for the greatest acts of terror and inhumanity, for the most extensive persecution of Christians of all times, and for a goal which is the suppression of all religion among mankind.”
The Melbourne correspondent of the “Daily Mail” reports that the news, which was made public by the English Radio and the London Press, of the appointment of Gen. Wavell to the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Allied forces in the Pacific, has caused great astonishment among the members of the Australian Government, an appointment which was supposed to remain confidential.
Mr. Curtin, Prime Minister, did not conceal his indignation, as it had been decided that this news would be announced by London. Washington and Canberra jointly. Mr. Curtin added that he was greatly surprised at the nomination of Admiral King as Commander-in-Chief of the Allied fleets in the Pacific, as the name of the Admiral has never been mentioned in the communications sent by Mr. Churchill.
RADIO BREMEN. 70.30 A.M. 20. 1.42.
Outstanding successes of the German and Rumanian troops in the Crimea demonstrate clearly that the Soviets will be unable to realise their aims in this sector of the Eastern Front.
Pressure had been intensified by the Reds and when they landed a major detachment near Kertsch, German forces evacuated the town in order not to be cut off. But their efforts to dislodge German and Axis troops from dominant positions have been unsuccessful. Led by Infanty-General von Manstein, Axis troops have recaptured Feodosia.
Reports give evidence of the strength of Soviet forces in the Crimea sector. Several thousands of soldiers have been captured, 73 tanks and 77 guns are numbered amongst the war booty.
This success has proved once again that the German soldier is always superior to a Russian soldier.
Strong support was given by Rumanian troops, and the Luftwaffe’s bombers, stukas and fighters have rendered excellent work.
Fighting in the Crimea is now developing in a manner unfavourable to the Red Army.
Russian hordes, attacking in other sectors of the Eastern front, have been thrown back by German troops.
Soviet villages, packed with Red troops, have been bombed incessantly by the German Air Force. This is extremely dangerous to the enemy.
Japanese aircraft and naval forces have combined in attacks on the southern point of Mindenao. A merchant ship of 5,500 tons has been sunk. The island fortress of Korregidor in the Philippines has been attacked with success.
Aerodromes in New Britain have also been attacked by the Japanese Air Force. T he official Netherlands communiqué announces that islands in the Netherlands Indies have been raided.
The loss of the 11,000 ton destroyer “Janiero” has been announced by the British Admiralty.
Melbourne radio reports that on Sunday at 6 p.m. Japanese aircraft raided the island of Raban.
The Japanese Press hails the military convention between Germany, Italy and Japan as epoch-making.
With a few days after the war in the Pacific broke out the bottom fell out of American stock exchanges, and shares dropped to the low level of 1938, in the Spring. Through the concerted action of interested circles discarded shares were bought up and a total collapse of the market prevented. Political circles in Washington, it is said, felt considerable consternation at the disastrous reaction on the New York Exchange. It is common knowledge that immediately after the outbreak of war in Europe a feverish influx of capital into the United States set in. In addition to profit considerations, which induced American capitalists to indulge in such speculation, British and others had other reasons for sending capital abroad. And now Washington has had to register with dismay that at the very moment when the warmongers got the war they wanted, American gilt-edged securities are being thrown on to the market, not even armament shares holding their own. American, British and other capital precipitately fled abroad, in effect to the South American countries. Reports from there show plainly that there has been a similar storm on the Exchanges concerned as previously in the United States. Experts are of the opinion that this was only to be expected under the circumstances, for doubtless America’s entry into the war would aggravate the economic difficulties hitherto prevailing in that country, particularly with regard to supplies of raw materials. Mention is made of the shortages in pig and scrap iron and of a deficient supply of non-ferrous metals, of the rubber requirements, now that the rubber centre in the Far East has been blocked in a way that was never even dreamed of. An official embargo has immediately been placed on the sale of tyres. More precarious still is the situation as regards tin, which commodity may also be regarded as blocked. Supplies of bauxite for the aluminium industry are similarly effected. In the interests of aircraft construction an agreement had been concluded a short time before with the Dutch East Indies for an annual supply of 500,000 tons. It is feared that none of this ore will be available in view of developments at and near Singapore.
Even American papers have intimated Roosevelt’s responsibility for the war on the very day when the President was at pains to refute the charges made against him throughout the country. Thus “New York Journal American” writes: “We have given up proclaiming peace and are provoking active war. By extortion and expropriation we are putting ourselves on the same level as the Bolshevics. We are giving up our liberty to establish bureaucratic tyranny. The four apocalyptic horsemen, oppression, extortion, domination and subjugation are riding through the country under the false flag of a pseudo-freedom and the disguising mask of an alleged Democracy.”
Possibilities of a British Government crisis following Mr. Churchill’s arrival back in London from America were discussed by “Lord Haw-Haw” in his daily broadcast from Bremen.
“On the return from the United States of Mr. Churchill,” he said, “the British Prime Minister has a lot to explain. One of the most immediate questions is the whereabouts and activities, if any, of the American fleet. At a time when the very vitals of British life in Asia are being threatened, there does not seem to be much evidence of Uncle Sam’s co-operation with his British ally. Beyond this grave mystery, arising out of developments that have occurred since December 11th, there is the graver query as to why Churchill led his country into war with Japan without making a better calculation of the chances. The third question and perhaps the most urgent of all is: What steps, if any, can be taken to arrest the Japanese march upon Singapore, the nerve-centre of British strategy in Asia?
“According to latest reports, the Japanese forces are only about 40 miles from this base. This fact does not necessarily indicate the fall of Singapore to-day, or to-morrow, but it does raise the question as to how this essential base can be retained for long in British possession.
“Churchill, in his love for lying propaganda, can be expected to make much of the capture of Sollum, which, in itself, is a matter of little moment, and the forces which had to surrender were very small. Sollum is not in any sense a key-point in this war.”
“Lord Haw-Haw went on to say, and gave quotations from speeches in support of his assertions, that Mr. Churchill and other British Government speakers had emphasised that the object of the British offensive in Libya was not so much the occupation of any given locality, but the destruction of the arms, and primarily the armoured forces of the Axis. He commented that the effect of any strategial success gained by the British in so far as the destruction of armoured forces was concerned was out of all proportion to the losses inflicted by the Germans and Italians.
“In view of these facts,” “Lord Haw-Haw” went on, “the British public should not be disposed to accept any local success in North Africa as compensation for the loss of Hong-Kong alone, much less Malaya or Borneo. The employment of such large British forces in Africa must necessarily simplify the task of the Japanese in the Far East theatre of war. All this talk of Libyan victories is a cock that will not fight. Churchill is now faced with considerable dissatisfaction. How can he appease those powerful elements of the Conservative Party which have had great interests in Malaya and the Far East, and which, with every reason, have become apprehensive with regard to investments in India? What consolation can he offer to the more far-sighted of British business men who are alarmed at the economic annexation of Canada which Roosevelt has completed, and by the exclusion of British trade from South America according to an agreement between Downing Street and the White House? What fanciful excuses can he offer to the influential families who now see themselves confronted with ruin through the cessation of their dividends? What proof can he give that Roosevelt will not treat Australia and New Zealand as he has treated Canada?
Anxiety on all these most important points may be allayed for a time by clever showmanship and emotional oratory, but such things as rents, taxes and dividends speak for themselves and, in the long run, their voice has more insistance than the palliative phrases of a skilled Parliamentary manager.”
“Lord Haw-Haw” added that Churchill could not afford to discount discontent which was prevalent on the Left, and said that the measures Mr. Bevin had taken for conscripting family labour, and the manner in which those measures were being carried out, had aroused that discontent amongst the rank and file which could be assuaged only by some very concrete and immediate prospect of success.
“Furthermore,” said “Lord Haw-Haw,” “there was amongst the Socialists an insistant demand that more should be done to help Soviet Russia than Churchill found himself in a position to accomplish, more especially since deliveries under the Lend and Lease Act had been suspended.
“Gradually, the legend of Russian victories was wearing thin, and Colonel Knox, the American Secretary of the Navy, drove a nail into the Government when he admitted that the German forces in Russia had not suffered any defeat. The interest the Soviet Government was not taking in British internal affairs was not very condusive to allaying the demands of those who were clamouring for more help for the Soviets. Such a matter could not be settled by the simple expedient of flying a red flag over the Ministry of Information or giving Bolshevik delegates sumptuous lunches, which might one day show the ruling classes of Britain how unwise they had been in having any dealings with the Bolshevik Government.
“Now, of course,” concluded “Lord Haw-Haw,” “there is talk of a Cabinet shuffle. I will make no predictions, but if Churchill says as some think he may that the Government stands or falls as a whole, he is substantially right; any change which leaves him master of the situation will do Britain no good. He has deliberately committed himself to the direction of the whole war, so far as Britain is concerned, and it is for him to take the consequences. He has shown himself an incompetent gambler, quite incapable of leading the British people in this great crisis. That is a truth which must inevitably be recognised in the end. He may postpone his fate for a time, but he cannot indefinitely hold a position which the failure of his grandiose designs must make impossible. He may, however, hold on until the British Empire is wrecked beyond repair. That is an issue for the British people themselves to decide.”
German agriculture has fulfilled the instructions received from the government authorities at the beginning of the war, namely to assure the nation’s food supply during the war, declared competent German quarters, backing up the statement with some impressive figures. All along the line the production of food stuffs has been increased. A remarkable increase is recorded for the production of food stuffs has been increased. A remarkable increase is recorded for the production of butter, which was 55 per cent higher in 1940 than the averages during the years 1928 to 1932. The milk supply of 1940 was 2 1/2 billion liters higher than in the last year of peace, 1938, and in 1941, this amount was even further increased by another 7 per cent. By expanding the own fodder basis, the number of cattle was kept at the same level as before the war. The cultivation of oil-seeds was trebled from 1939 to 1940, when it reached 200,000 hectares, and was again expanded in 1941 to 300,000 hectares. In 1940 there was a record crop of 72 million tons of sugar beets, and of 46.3 million tons of fodder beets. Also here the cultivated area has tremendously increased. The vegetable area cultivated in 1941 was increased by 21 per cent. as compared with the previous year, now reaching a total of 200,000 hectares.
This increased agricultural production is also reflected by the increased sales balances. Although prices in 1939 were still 2 per cent. below those of the economic year of 1928-29, the receipts of German agriculture this year amounted to 14.07 billion Reichmark and exceeded for the first time those of the record year 1928-29. The agricultural products reaching the German markets in 1939 to 1940 showed 23 per cent. increase as compared to 1928-29. About the same amount of necessary fertilizer was available to German agriculture as before the war, and an efficient organization saw to it that a sufficient number of agricultural machines were ready to be promptly employed wherever there was a lack of farm help. The shortage in farmhands was overcome by employing foreign farm labourers and by making use of prisoners-of-war. In addition it is particularly stressed by competent quarters that all branch organizations of the National-Socialist Labour Party greatly contributed to the harvesting of the increased crops.
Much has been said and written of late regarding the wrapping up of parcels and the need for customers to supply their own paper or containers, but so far little attention has been paid to the equally important matter of wrapping up the customer himself!
Now that cold and wintry weather is our daily lot and is likely to be for some weeks yet, we find those we meet in the streets, and even in the home, achieving a sudden “embonpoint” that indicates in no way an increased dietary. Within reason the wearing of additional clothing in winter is desirable, in fact, it becomes essential but, like most other good things, it can be carried to extremes.
Doctors will agree that those persons who wear the least clothing are the healthiest, and light, warm underclothing is preferable to heavy overcoats, scarves and mufflers which more often than not are only traps for the unwary to catch a cold.
The hatless brigade boast of an immunity from the ordinary cold which others envy, if it is true, and it is well-known that for rheumatism the worst thing to do is to wrap up the affected part so that the air is excluded.
Exercise sufficient to warm up the body may not always be readily practicable but even a slight dose of “physical jerks” will be found sufficient to stimulate the blood enough to enable the practitioner to discard surplus wrappings.
Lack of fuel and edible fats no doubt make the cold weather seem colder, but it is a mistake to try to counteract this effect by adopting an unnecessary and cumbersome amount of clothing. Try it and see.
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