Background: The news of the D-Day invasion was unsettling to Germans,
but the arrival of the first of the “miracle weapons,” the V-1
missile, had a calming effect. The first V-1 missiles fell on London on
June 12, six days after the beginning of the Normany invasion. Here was
something entirely new, something that might reverse the tide of the war.
This article from Das Reich, the weekly newspaper founded by Goebbels
in 1940, suggests that the V-1 has disrupted Allied plans.
The V-Weapons were a problem for Goebbels. On the one hand, they gave
welcome hope to the German population. On the other hand, they resulted
in overconfidence. In his diary for 18 June 1944, Goebbels wrote: “People
are already making bets that the war will be over in three or four
or eight days. I see this as an enormous danger for us if these exaggerated
hopes and illusions are not met. In the end, those carried away by
enthusiasm will blame the government. I fear this excessive enthusiasm
will end in great disappointment. That cannot happen. I have therefore
given the press and radio firm instructions to reduce the revenge propaganda
and keep to purely factual reporting.”
The source: Harald Jansen, “Erste V.1-Bilanz,”
Das Reich, 2 July 1944, p. 4.
First Results of the V-1
Major Impact, Inadequate Defences
by Harald Jansen
How has the war changed as a result of the advent of the V-1?
The whole world is asking this question. New names, thoughts,
and combinations result from the device, which day and night
thunders down with fiery blows on the city on the Thames. The
twilight of uncertainty prevails. Will it be overcome in a few
days or weeks, or will a new weapon develop from it, just as
happened with the airplane between the last war and this one?
There is a new wheel in the machinery of war, the river is
flowing in a different direction. The first news was a sensation
thoughout the world. Over the thundering of this weapon, we see
how it changes all previous tactical considerations.
It was an evening a few weeks before the first use of this
weapon. We were sitting on the old terrace of a chateau. German
formations heading toward England thundered above us. We were
quiet as we listened to them. Finally a captain who had seen
duty in the last war shook his head thoughtfully and said: “London
is like a large spiderís web. A fifth of all Englishmen live
there, and it has a high percentage of its critical industry.
It can be wounded. Our cities are webs, too, but not as sensitive,
since none of them has so central a place in population or industry.
We can hit part of the dock facilities with our incendiary and
explosive bombs, but repair work on the web will begin the next
day. Our cities are just as resilient! The air war will be inadequate
as long as it is not constant, every hour, every minute. When
our new explosives are ready to hit London, one will tear a gap
in the web, to be followed immediately by another, bringing traffic
to a halt. The spider of this large web must not be allowed to
Weeks passed and now the missiles fly overhead. The invasion
concentrated men and material in the southeast of the island,
and increased their vulnerability. Even in the first week, there
was a division of labor between German warplanes and the new
weapon. The long-range bombers received an ally. The V-1 took
its place. This is unsettling for our opponents, and represents
a two-fold danger to their war effort, unless they find a defense
as quickly as possible.
The enemyís propaganda is based on the glories of four-motored
bombers, on the fanfare of air power and shouts of triumph
over burning German cities. The citizens of London were told:
“1940 will not be repeated. The Germans can no longer do
anything to us.” Still, they built the densest system of
flak in the empire around London during the past five years.
The extent of the use of the new weapon is not yet clear,
but it is certain that it has had a powerful effect on enemy
morale, making the massís power of resistance sensitive and uncertain.
The masses were living in expectation of rapid victory. They
had pleasant dreams of having only 100 yards to go, when suddenly
they hit a new wall. At first they were blinded, poking around
looking for a way to eliminate the problem. Overnight the invasion
leadership has a second front the V-1 front. It is graver,
more serious than a daily bombing attack on London. Since the
ordinary means of defense failed, a significant part of their
air force must be redirected to search for the launching pads.
Scouts, fighters, fighter-bombers and four-motored bombers have
been diverted, taking them away from the task of supporting the
ground forces. While the German air force is free to attack enemy
bridgeheads, the enemy must divert his forces from the west.
The Anglo-American air forces have to fight on two different
fronts, located several hundred kilometers apart.
There is a second question. How do the new warheads compare
with the bombs of long-range bombers? A terror attack by a large
fleet of bombers follows a regular pattern. A sector in a city
is attacked. It receives the mass of bombs. Why? Fire and ruins
seal off a part of the city, rendering assistance impossible.
There is a clear purpose. Frequently three or four incendiary
bombs land next to each other, even though one would be sufficient.
During an air attack, the population stays in basements and shelters
while the incendiary and explosive bombs fall above them. Once the all-clear
sounds, however, they are free once again to move about. That is why air
attacks are “incomplete.” Individuals now form a community that
battles the fires, moves aside the rubble, and prepares further defenses.
To fight this, the Anglo-American terror specialists used delayed action
bombs. But they, too, are quickly neutralized by bomb experts. This makes
the impact of the new weapon clear.
It is clear that defending oneís air space takes more manpower
than attacking it does. Any new tactical weapon that gives the
enemy any chance to resist at all as for example is the case
with the V-1, which can be seen in flight puts an enormous
burden on the defender.
Consider an example. 300 German bombers with crews totaling
1200 men attack London. We naturally do not know the exact strength
of the night fighters that oppose them, but it probably is about
the same numerically. To that must be added the ground defense
forces, an estimated 100,000 to 150,000 troops. It takes about
the same resources to manufacture the anti-aircraft shells as
it takes to manufacture the German bombs.
Nonetheless the enemy has to admit that Londonís air defenses,
its best technology, its constant practice, and its best ideas
have failed to deal with German tactics. This is clear proof
that a numerically inferior air force can keep forces ten to
a hundred times stronger in check, holding down large enemy forces.
What does that have to do with the new German warheads? The
enemy has naturally observed the flight paths of the warheads,
even photographed them, and learned that their speed is remarkably
high. He has concluded the flight paths are more like those of
aircraft than artillery shells. That means that he has to devote
his full defensive capacity to opposing the secret weapons. He
has been forced to establish a chain of flak boats along his
coast. From the coast to London, the tracers of light and medium
flak fill the sky and the shells flash. At night the lights of
night fighters are visible, during the day the fastest Spitfires
are in action. A few months back Eisenhower told his pilots:
“You’ll get no sleep for days and weeks. You must give everything
you have for the invasion.” These plans have collapsed.
If the V-1ís only goal had been to disrupt the enemyís plans,
it would be well on the way to success.
London announces that the following is known:
The new warheads fly at elevations between 500 and 2000 meters.
It is a steerable device resembling an airplane. The “flying
robots” have engines that can be heard a long way off and
leave a trail visible at a considerable distance against a clear
That is sufficient to justify the greatest defensive efforts.
Several train loads of shells have been fired, to no avail. But
one has to shoot to calm the population. This is terribly expensive.
But the German fire goes on day and night, interrupted by powerful
explosions in the city, and something must be done. Even he who
is convinced that the defensive fire accomplishes nothing will
have to take shelter from the falling flak.
One can draw these conclusions after the first weeks:
- British-American air activity has been interrupted by diverting
major forces along the V-1 flight paths;
- Despite extremely active use of flak, the enormous defensive
machinery has completely and absolutely failed;
- The transportation system and economic life in London and
the southeast of England has been seriously disrupted;
And there is the unsettling knowledge that there now is the
ability to attack the island without enormous and costly air
armadas. Who can stop the weapon from immediately seeking out
the most important target: London!
It is certainly true that an omnipotent miracle weapon will
always remain the dream of uncombative souls. As a young lieutenant
said as he rapped his knuckles against the steel flank of the
new weapon: “We want to announce that you have done a lot
to us. Now it is time to turn back the clock.” A corporal
standing next to him nodded. His family was buried by bombs in
Berlin. They and others had worked 73 hours without sleeping.
There were deep bags under their eyes. Then they loaded the warhead.
It is this spirit, and German genius, that will determine the
outcome of this war for our existence.
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